Palmitoylethanolamide- mast cell system 500.000.000 million years old

PEA in Sea SquirtIt is an acient system, the system of the protection of tissue by palmitoylethanolamide and its regulatory aspects related to the mast cell.

Recently both the mast cell, as well as PEA have been tracked down in tunicates, acient animals still around, and these animals were around alive and kicking in the Cambrium (500.000.000 million years ago).

Isabel Matias and her colleagues determined the levels of palmitoylethanolamide in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis and found it in all tissues. This can be seen on the graph, PEA was present in 7 different tissues of the sea squirt:in the cerebral ganglia, heart, intestine, ovaries, pharynx, stomach and in the testis.

Mast cells are as old as the PEA system: the mast cell phylogenetic progenitor evolved into a tissue regulatory and remodelling cell, which was incorporated into the networks of adaptive immunity already in the Cambrian era, some 550 million years ago. Early Mast Cells probably appeared in the last common ancestor we shared with hagfish, lamprey and sharks about 450-500 million years ago, as Crivellato et al pointed out in 2009.

The PEA system is therefore one of the most important natural defense and adaptation systems in the living world, developed and optimized not in 10 years, for a normal pharmaceutical molecule, but during 500.000.000 million years in nature’s laboratory. We are privileged to be able to use this system now, via PEA supplements, to bring balance and restore the natural situation in cases of chronic inflammation and pain.


Matias I1, McPartland JM, Di Marzo V. Occurrence and possible biological role of the endocannabinoid system in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis. J Neurochem. 2005 Jun;93(5):1141-56.

Crivellato E, Ribatti D. The mast cell: an evolutionary perspective. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2010 May;85(2):347-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00105.x. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Review.

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