Palmitoylethanolamide ameliorates development of colitis in 2 different experiments

In two different experiments PEA (intraperitoneal and per os) protects against inflammation in the colon:

1. Effect of palmitoylethanolamide in a murine model of colitis, presented at the at the 36° CONGRESSO NAZIONALE DELLA SOCIETÀ ITALIANA DI FARMACOLOGIA; Il ruolo della RICERCA farmacologica per la CRESCITA e la SALUTE in Italia, Torino, 23-26 ottobre 2013 by S. Petrosino1, F. Borrelli, E. Pagano, V. Di Marzo, and A.A. Izzo.

2. D. Impellizzeri, E. Esposito, R. Di Paola, A. Ahmad, M. Campolo, Paterniti1 and S. Cuzzocrea. Palmitoylethanolamide ameliorates development of colitis caused by injection of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) in mice. Presented at the
36° CONGRESSO NAZIONALE DELLA SOCIETÀ ITALIANA DI FARMACOLOGIA; Il ruolo della RICERCA farmacologica per la CRESCITA e la SALUTE in Italia, Torino, 23-26 ottobre 2013

1. PEA (0.1-1 mg/kg) was administered:

a. intraperitoneally (i.p.) for three consecutive days starting 24 hours after chemical colitis; and

b. PEA (0.1-1 mg/kg) was administered orally (per os) for three consecutive days starting 24 hours after chemical colitis.

Results:

a. PEA (i.p.) inhibited the loss of body weight induced by colitis and reduced colon weight/colon length ratio in a dose-dependent manner; and

b. PEA (per os) inhibited the loss of body weight induced by colitis, and reduced colon weight/colon length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity, as well as the number of animals with diarrhea.

Both ip as well as per os pure PEA could reduce signs and symptoms of colitis, already in a low dose-range! (o.1-1 mg/kg BW)

2. D. Impellizzeri and colleagues presented the effects of pure PEA 10 mg/kg in a model for colitis at the at the 36° CONGRESSO NAZIONALE DELLA SOCIETÀ ITALIANA DI FARMACOLOGIA; Il ruolo della RICERCA farmacologica per la CRESCITA e la SALUTE in Italia, Torino, 23-26 ottobre 2013. The authors start pointing out that:

PEA has been proposed to act as a protective endogenous mediator produced during inflammatory conditions to counteract inflammation, neuronal damage and pain. In fact, several studies demonstrate that the tissue concentrations of PEA are altered during different pathological conditions (Re et al., 2007). For its chemical stability, it can be also administered exogenously as the active principle of current anti-inflammatory and analgesic preparations.’

In a Colitis model (intracolonic instillation of DNBS) PEA was administered daily i.p, (10 mg/kgl). Due to the chemical inflammation colon nuclear factor NF- kB and MAP kinases (p-ERK) expression was increased as well as cytokines TNF-a and IL-1b production. Furthermore, neutrophil infiltration, by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, in the mucosa was associated with up-regulation of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and P-selectin.

The tissue of the colon was activated and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) showed an intense staining. The chemical inflammation resulted in diarrhea and weight loss.

PEA decreased many inflammatory parameters.

Treatment with PEA also significantly reduced the appearance of diarrhea and weight loss.

The conclusion was:

Thus, the results of this study suggested that administration of PEA may be beneficial for treatment of several inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease.

These data fit very much in what we understand about the mechanism of action of PEA in inflammation. THe body synthesizes PEA to protect cells against inflammation. SOme years ago this was also described in: D’Argenio G1, Petrosino S, Gianfrani C, Valenti M, Scaglione G, Grandone I, Nigam S, Sorrentini I, Mazzarella G, Di Marzo V. Overactivity of the intestinal endocannabinoid system in celiac disease and in methotrexate-treated rats.J Mol Med (Berl). 2007 May;85(5):523-30. Epub 2007 Mar 30. These authors stated that this protective factor can indeed be measured: PEA peaks during acute inflammation; now with the emergence of PEA as a supplement we have a new treatment modality in hand for colitis and morbus Crohn.

Sources:

S. Petrosino1, F. Borrelli, E. Pagano, V. Di Marzo, and A.A. Izzo.. Effect of palmitoylethanolamide in a murine model of colitis, presented at the at the 36° CONGRESSO NAZIONALE DELLA SOCIETÀ ITALIANA DI FARMACOLOGIA; Il ruolo della RICERCA farmacologica per la CRESCITA e la SALUTE in Italia, Torino, 23-26 ottobre 2013

2013- Effect of palmitoylethanolamide in a murine model of colitis

D. Impellizzeri, E. Esposito, R. Di Paola, A. Ahmad, M. Campolo, Paterniti1 and S. Cuzzocrea. Palmitoylethanolamide ameliorates development of colitis caused by injection of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) in mice. Presented at the
36° CONGRESSO NAZIONALE DELLA SOCIETÀ ITALIANA DI FARMACOLOGIA; Il ruolo della RICERCA farmacologica per la CRESCITA e la SALUTE in Italia, Torino, 23-26 ottobre 2013

2013-Palmitoylethanolamide ameliorates development of colitis caused by injection of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) in mice

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