Neuronal damage as assessed by transection of long-range projections apparently provides a strong time-dependent and area-confined signal for de novo synthesis of various endocannabinoids, presumably to restrict neuronal damage. In an elegant study Sonja Kallendrusch and colleagues pointed out some recent studies demonstrating the neuroprotective properties of endocannabinoids in various models of neuronal lesion in vitro and in vivo. Palmitoylethanolamide, they emphesised, mediates its neuroprotective effects via dual PPAR alpha activation on microglial cells and neurons.
Endocannabinoids protect against nerve damage
In their study the found a strong increase in arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) levels in the denervation zone (dentate gyrus) 24 hours post lesion (hpl); NAPE-PLD, responsible for biosynthesis of endocannabinodis, was increased early in the pathological process, whereas FAAH, a catabolizing enzyme, was up-regulated only after 2 days.
This shows the elegancy of the endocannabinoid system in its nerve protective aspects.
The authors concluded:
Taken together the activation of the endocannabindoid (eCB) system after neuronal damage by transection of long-range projections apparently provides a strong time-dependent and area confined signal for de novo synthesis of eCB, presumably to prevent or restrict neuronal damage.
The present data underlines the importance of eCB in CNS pathologies and identified a site-specific intrinsic regulation of eCB levels in long-range projection damage. The highly dynamic eCB system represents an intrinsic, presumably protective system in the CNS. 
: Kallendrusch S, Hobusch C, Ehrlich A, Ziebell S, Ueda N, Geisslinger G, Koch M, Dehghani F. | Site-specific and time-dependent activation of the endocannabinoid system after transection of long-range projections. | PLoS One. | 2012;7(3):e33537. Epub 2012 Mar 22.